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Vivotif references



(1) – Health Protection Agency.  Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi Laboratory reports.  Available at   accessed on 14/08/11

(2) – HPA. Typhoid Factsheet

(3) Dietrich G et al. Experience with registered mucosal vaccines. Vaccine 2003: 21: 678-683

(4) Guzman CA et al. Vaccines against typhoid fever. Vaccine 2006; 24: 3804-3811.

(5) Salerno-Gonclaves R et al. Characterization of CD8effector T cell responses in volunteers immunized with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain Ty21a typhoid vaccine. J Immunol 2002; 169: 2196-2203.

(6) Sztein MB. Cell-Mediated immunity and antibody response elicited by attenuated Salmonella entericaserovar Typhi strains used as live oral vaccines in humans. Clin Infect Dis 2007; 45: 15-19

(7) –  Levine MM.  Typhoid Fever Vaccines, in EdsPlotkin, S. Oreinstein W. Offit P.  Vaccines.  5th edition Saunders Elsevier, 2008

(8) Vivotif® Summary of Product Characteristics, June 2010.

(9) Levine MM et al (eds.) Development of Vaccines and Drugs against    Diarrhea. Lund, Sweden:   Studenttliteratur; 1986; 90–101.

(10) Griot-Wenk ME et al. Low rate of spontaneously reported adverse drug reactions in a recent post-marketing surveillance for Vivotif Berna®. Italian J Tropical Medicine 2001; 6: 104–105.

(11) World Health Organization. Typhoid vaccines: WHO position paper. Weekly epidemiological record 2008; 83: 49–60.